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Neuropsychiatric syndromes associated with stroke: review of the literature. To review the main neuropsychiatric syndromes associated with stroke, their clinical features, impact over functional recovery, therapeutics, putative relations to stroke pathophysiology and, when possible, to contextualize them to the Brazilian reality.

According to the proposed objectives, we reviewed the stroke-related syndromes characterized by depression, anxiety, emotional lability, irritability, anger, catastrophic reaction, apathy, dementia, mania and psychosis.

These findings emphasize the lack of information on the therapeutic management of neuropsychiatric complications secondary to stroke, especially considering the burden on public health represented by cerebrovascular diseases. Following the improvement in the survival rates with the early strategies to stroke, the advancement of knowledge on neuropsychiatric disorders seem to have the greatest potential to improve the quality of life of patients affected by stroke.

Key words: Stroke; cerebrovascular disease; neuropsychiatry; depression; anxiety; dementia. Angelelli et al. Uma coorte de 4. Segundo Robinson et al.

Similarmente, Souza et al. Por sua vez, Carod-Artal et al. Pacientes afetados por AVE frequentemente sofrem algum grau de incapacidade em longo prazo. Fedoroff et al. No Brasil, Terroni et al. Os trabalhos de Robinson et al.

Outros autores contestam isso Carson et al. Nesse sentido, Carota et al. Hackett et al. Segundo Price et al. De forma geral, Tharwani et al. Nesse caso, os ISRS surgem como alternativa. Burton et al. Segundo Angelelli et al. Segundo Burton et al. Segundo Carod-Artal et al.

Entre eles, citam-se amitriptilina, nortriptilina, desipramina, fluoxetina, citalopram, paroxetina, sertralina, levodopa e amantadina 66 , 72 , Adler et al. De forma similar, Gianturco et al. Everson et al. Williams et al. Paradiso et al. Segundo Carota et al. No entanto, esses sintomas podem representar sobrecarga significativa e fonte de estresse para familiares e cuidadores Carota et al.

Chan et al. Recentemente, Van Dalen et al. Van Dalen et al. Neste, os pacientes podem ser incapazes de iniciar movimentos ou de falar Eles podem estar incontinentes e comer ou beber somente se estimulados energicamente por um terceiro. De acordo com Van Dalen et al. Santos et al. Nesse sentido, Starkstein et al. Rabins et al. World Health Organization. Incidence rates of strokes in the eighties: the decline in stroke. Predictors of in-hospital mortality and attributable risks of death after ischemic stroke: the German stroke registers study group.

Arch Intern Med. Stroke epidemiology, patterns of management, and outcomes in Fortaleza, Brazil: a hospital-based multicenter prospective study. Estud Psicol Natal. Mota JF, Nicolato R. J Bras Psiquiatr. Chemerinski E, Robinson RG. The neuropsychiatry of stroke.

Health-related quality of life after stroke — a comprehensive review. Development of neuropsychiatric symptoms in poststroke patients: a cross-sectional study. Acta Psychiatr Scand. A two-year longitudinal study of post-stroke mood disorders: findings during the initial evaluation. A two year longitudinal study of mood disorders following stroke.

Prevalence and duration at six months follow-up. Br J Psychiatry. Two-year longitudinal study of poststroke mood disorders: diagnosis and outcome at one and two years. Mood disorder following cerebrovascular accident. Prevalence and outcome of poststroke depression in hospitalized patients. Int J Psychiatr Med. Mood disorders in the year after stoke. Major depression in stroke patients: a 3-year longitudinal study.

Prevalence of depression after stroke: the Perth Community Stroke Study. A study of post-stroke depression in a rehabilitative center. Acta Psych Scand. Predictors of depression after stroke: a systematic review of observational studies.

Neuropsychiatric symptoms in geriatric patients admitted to skilled nursing facilities in nursing homes for rehabilitation after stroke: a longitudinal multicenter study. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. Natural history, predictors and outcomes of depression after stroke: systematic review and meta-analysis.

The natural history of depression up to 15 years after stroke: the South London Stroke Register. Self-rated health, symptoms of depression and general symptoms at 3 and 12 months after a first-ever stroke: a municipality-based study in Sweden.

BMC Fam Pract. Apathy following cerebrovascular lesions. Frequency and clinical, neuropsychological and neuroimaging correlates of apathy following stroke — the Sydney Stroke Study. Psychol Med.

Frequency of anxiety after stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Int J Stroke. Psychological associations with emotionalism after stroke. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. Unconventional affective symptoms and executive functions after stroke in the elderly. Arch Gerontol Geriatr Suppl. Robinson RG.

The clinical neuropsychiatry of stroke. New York: Cambridge University Press; Factors associated with health-related quality of life for adults with stroke sequelae. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. Depressive symptoms and disability in chagasic stroke patients: impact on functionality and quality of life. J Neurol Sci. Determinants of quality of life in Brazilian stroke survivors.

Simis S, Nitrini R. Cognitive improvement after treatment of depressive symptoms in the acute phase of stroke. Rev Bras Psiquiatr. Frontal stroke: problem solving, decision making, impulsiveness, and depressive symptoms in men and women. Psychol Neurosci.

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