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To characterise the nutritional status in children with obesity or wasting conditions, European anthropometric reference values for body composition measures beyond the body mass index BMI are needed. Differentiated assessment of body composition in children has long been hampered by the lack of appropriate references.

The aim of our study is to provide percentiles for body composition indices in normal weight European children, based on the IDEFICS cohort Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health Effects in Children and infantS.

Overall 18, 2. Percentile values of the most important anthropometric measures related to the degree of adiposity are depicted for European girls and boys.

Age- and sex-specific differences were investigated for all measures. As an example, the 50th and 99th percentile values of waist circumference ranged from Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden.

DXA reference values for adults were normalized to age; reference values for children included total and sub-total whole body results and were normalized to age, height, or lean mass. These reference values should be helpful in the evaluation of a variety of adult and childhood abnormalities involving fat, lean, and bone, for establishing entry criteria into clinical trials, and for other medical, research, and epidemiological uses.

Comparability of reference values. Harmonization of certified values in Reference Materials RMs can be carried out by applying nuclear analytical techniques to RMs of various matrix types and concentration levels.

Although RMs generally should not be used as primary standards the cross evaluation of concentrations in RMs leads to better compatibility of reference values and thus to a greater agreement between analytical results from different laboratories using these RMs for instrument calibration and quality assurance.

Reference values for electrooculography. This amplitude variability may be related to the fact that the test was conducted without pupillary mydriasis. The reference value obtained for Arden index was 1,55 to 2, Chronic intestinal ischemia and splanchnic blood-flow: Reference values and correlation with body- composition. New reference values for body composition by bioelectrical impedance analysis in the general population: results from the UK Biobank. Low fat-free mass FFM is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality in elderly and patient populations.

Therefore, measurement of FFM is important in nutritional assessment. Although reference values have been established for individuals with normal body weight, no specific cutoff values are available for overweight and obese populations. Also, limited studies accounted for the age-related decline in FFM.

To determine BMI- and age-specific reference values for abnormal low FFM I in white-ethnic men and women free of self-reported disease from the general population. The UK Biobank is a prospective epidemiological study of the general population from the United Kingdom. Individuals in the age category 45 to 69 years were analyzed.

Also, self-reported chronic conditions and ethnic background were registered, and lung function was assessed using spirometry. Using the UK Biobank dataset, new reference values for body composition assessed with BIA were determined in white-ethnic men and women aged 45 to 69 years. Because these reference values are BMI specific, they are of broad interest for overweight and obese populations.

Published by Elsevier Inc. Differences in body composition and physical functions associated with sarcopenia in Chinese elderly: reference values and prevalence. This study investigates the age-related differences in skeletal muscle mass SM , muscle strength and physical performance in mainland Chinese. Based on available data, the reference values criteria for the definition of sarcopenia in elderly Chinese were explored.

Body composition measurements were obtained using a bioelectrical impedance analyzer BIA ; muscle strength was determined by handgrip strength HS ; and physical function was evaluated by the subjects' 6-m gait speed GS. In this study, HS and GS declined significantly after 55 years and very dramatically after 75 years. Appendicular SM index of elderly males and females, respectively. If Western criteria for sarcopenia were adopted, the prevalence of low GS and low HS would be times higher in the studied population, also exhibiting significant gender differences.

These findings indicate that it is necessary to establish an outcomes-based and ethnic-specific set of reference values for the diagnosis of sarcopenia in elderly Chinese. All rights reserved. Dietary Reference Values for choline.

In this Opinion, the Panel considers dietary choline including choline compounds e. Dietary reference values for thiamin.

The Panel considers that data from depletion—repletion studies in adults on the amount of dietary thiamin intake Results from other depletion—repletion studies are in agreement with this value. Specific structure of biota community condition can used as indicator for the ecosystem stability value or the waters pollution level where the aquatic biota exist. The grouping and calculation result from family number, Ept presences sensitive macro invertebrate , Diversity index H ' , DO value and TOC value showed 5 criteria of water quality as reference site.

This criteria is used to determine water quality level from ten branches of rivers in the upper Cisadane Sub River Basin, Cijeruk districts. Both biotic index system support and give the similar evaluation to water quality level from ten branches of river on the upper Cisadane Sub River Basin.

The water quality level is described as fellows: station number 4 is assumed as the true reference site, station number 3, 5, 8 are the first alternative reference site, station number 2, 7, 9 are the second alternative reference site and station 1, 6, 10 are the sites which relatively good water quality, but it is not recommended as reference site.

Dietary reference values for riboflavin. The Panel considers that the inflection point in the urinary riboflavin excretion curve in relation to riboflavin intake Dietary reference values for potassium. The Panel decides to set DRVs on the basis of the relationships between potassium intake and blood pressure and stroke Full Text Available To determine age- and sex-specific body composition reference values and investigate age differences in these parameters for community-dwelling older Japanese men and women, using direct segmental multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis.

The pooled analysis included cross-sectional data from nondisabled, community-dwelling adults aged years men, women; mean age: Ltd, Seoul, Korea.

We then calculated quartiles and quintiles for these indices after stratifying for sex and 5-year age group. The small age-related decrease in FFMI may be a noteworthy characteristic of body composition.

Reference values and evaluation of the results of intercomparisons. The need of a reference value for the composition of materials distributed in intercomparisons is generally recognized. A single reference laboratory or a group of reference laboratories may be used to establish this reference value. The respective advantages and limitations of the two approaches are discussed. The reference measurements must be evaluated to provide the confidence limits of the reference value but also an estimate of the possible heterogeneity of the materials and its samples.

The results of the intercomparison measurements should themselves be evaluated to test and discuss the significance of the biases of individual and selected groups of laboratories or techniques.

Reference values for spirometry in preschool children. Reference values for lung function tests differ in samples from different countries, including values for preschoolers. The main objective of this study was to derive reference values in this population. A prospective study was conducted through a questionnaire applied to preschool children aged 3 to 6 years, from schools and day-care centers in a metropolitan city in Brazil.

Children were selected by simple random sampling from the aforementioned schools. Of the children enrolled, Of these, Height and gender significantly influenced FVC values through linear and logarithmic regression analysis. The lower limits were calculated by measuring the fifth percentile residues. Full expiratory curves are more difficult to obtain in preschoolers.

Reference values were defined for spirometry in preschool children in this population, which are applicable to similar populations. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. Reference change values and power functions.

Repeated samplings and measurements in the monitoring of patients to look for changes are common clinical problems. However, a reference change value only detects the probability of false-positives type I error , and for this reason, a model to calculate the risk of missing significant changes in serial Reference values of spirometry for Finnish adults. Diagnostic assessment of lung function necessitates up-to-date reference values.

Spirometry was performed for adults in the population-based FinEsS studies and for healthy non-smoking volunteer adults. Sex-specific reference values , which are estimated using the GAMLSS method and adjusted for age and height, are provided. This study offers up-to-date reference values of spirometry for native Finns with a wide age range.

The GLI predictions seem not to be suitable for clinical use for native Finns due to underestimation of lung volumes. This article explores student, instructor, and librarian perceptions of chat reference in the context of an introductory composition course.

Participants in a mixed-method study responded to an anonymized chat transcript. While student respondents valued speed and efficiency, they were willing to receive instruction and open to questions that…. Reference values for isometric muscle force among workers for the Netherlands: a comparison of reference values. Background: Muscle force is important for daily life and sports and can be measured with a handheld dynamometer.

It is not unambiguous whether reference values can be generalized to other populations. Objectives in this study were;. The German, Austrian, and Swiss nutrition societies are the editors of the ' reference values for nutrient intake'. They have revised the reference values for the intake of vitamin C and published them in February The vitamin C requirement in women as well as in children and adolescents is extrapolated from the requirement in men and in relation to their body weight.

For male and female adolescents, at the age of 15 to under 19 years, the recommended intake is and 90 mg, respectively. New Danish reference values for spirometry.

The cutoff value of normal lung In , the Danish Lung Society Dietary reference values for vitamin K.

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