FRANCISCO SELVA VENDAJE NEUROMUSCULAR PDF

Diferentes marcas de kinesio , kinesiotaping o kinesiologytape producen diferentes niveles de tension aun utilizando el mismo alargamiento. Jump to. Sections of this page. Accessibility Help. Email or Phone Password Forgot account?

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Metrics details. Literature addressing the mechanical properties of kinesiology tape is quite scarce. There are no studies which focus on the mechanical characteristics of kinesiology tape, its mechanical properties, nor its adherence following the ISO international standard test methods for tape elongation.

This study quantified the mechanical characteristics of samples of kinesiology tape from 19 different brands and in 4 different colors using a dynamometer. The different kinesiology tapes presented different behaviors with regard to rupture and removal when applied to skin in dry state, wet state and after being submerged in artificial acidic sweat solution.

Therefore, different kinesiology tape brands will produce different levels of strain even though the same elongation is used. Depending on the characteristics body dimensions and properties skin elongation of each subject in the sample, bandages with different elongations must be applied to achieve the same strain in all of the tapes and therefore produce the same effect.

The absence of these data at this time limits the reliability of previous clinical studies, makes comparing their findings impossible and presents new challenges for research in this field. Peer Review reports. Recent years have seen significant developments in bandaging techniques, above all with the appearance of kinesiology tape KT.

These tapes have a plain weave structure and, thanks to their elastane content, allow for longitudinal stretch. Some authors credit KTs with effects such as the improvement of somatosensory stimulation and an increase in mechanoreceptive and proprioceptive impulses which cause various responses such as the facilitation or inhibition of muscle activation [ 1 , 2 , 3 ].

However, there is insufficient clinical evidence to support these claims [ 4 , 5 ]. The application of KT has become a popular treatment among athletes, although its real effects are still being investigated [ 6 ].

Nevertheless, various authors encourage the use of KT for all athletes as a way to prevent and treat musculoskeletal injuries [ 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 ] or control static and dynamic posture [ 9 , 11 ]. There is no clear consensus regarding the key aspects of KT application methodology, such as the percentage elongation to be used [ 5 ]. Consequently, KT applications cannot be reliably reproduced.

According to the analysis in published systematic reviews [ 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 ], studies into KT present either low or very low methodological quality when assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system GRADE adopted by the Cochrane Collaboration; as a result, there is currently no clinically significant evidence to support the use of KT as a therapeutic tool [ 17 ].

GRADE methodology is not a definitive fixed guide but rather provides suggestions regarding how to approach the literature, developing an optimal system of rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations for clinical practice guidelines [ 18 ]. Even though extensive effort has been invested in evaluating the efficacy of KT, there is still a dearth of attempts to collate the findings from individual studies to determine the effects of KT application on pain and disability and, if these effects are found, their magnitude [ 5 ].

It is necessary to define standardized methodological criteria so to that effects of KT can be demonstrated. Specific research studies, such as that by Pamuk and Yucesoy [ 21 ] deem the application of KT to be effective. Magnetic resonance MR imaging has been used to provide a reliable representation of tissue deformation, including changes in the length of muscle fibers and the direction of this change after the application of KT.

The lack of homogeneity in the deformation of muscle fibers produced by KT strain indicates the occurrence of epimuscular myofascial force transmission. Accordingly, changing the level of tension the KT applies to the skin can transmit different levels of force directly to muscle tissues, either to stimulate or inhibit. Pamuk and Yucesoy [ 21 ] produced a detailed evaluation of the local tissue deformation occurring acutely under the mechanical load imposed by the application of KT.

Their results show local tissue deformations produced by the effects of KT application, confirming that KT also affects non-targeted tissues and sustaining the role of a neuro-mechanical coupling in the entire limb. Although these studies show that kinesiology tape is effective, the specific action mechanisms of KTs and their real physiological effects remain unknown [ 19 , 20 , 21 ].

As a result, defining the methodological characteristics of the application of kinesiology tape is deemed to be a priority. As they do not use an agreed methodology, positive results in previous KT studies may be attributed to placebo effects, too [ 19 ].

Two studies have been published regarding the mechanical properties of KT [ 22 , 23 ]. The authors postulate that there are differences between the mechanical properties of the various brands and colors of KT but do so without completing a statistical analysis of their results. The second study, by Matheus et al. They also found significant differences in adherence force when removing KT specimens from a metal plate. Following standard test methodology is necessary to enable KT applications to be reproduced.

The reproducibility of the effect of KTs is crucial in clinical settings. It is possible that the effect the application produces on the tissues may differ depending on the mechanical properties of each tape. Perhaps the absence of any effect from the application of KT reported in previous studies is related to the characteristics of the different KTs and the application time.

Consequently, to repeatedly obtain a certain level of strain there would have to be no variation in the properties of the tape. The reproducibility of the effects of KT has not been studied with sufficient rigor until now. Our objective was to determine if KTs have different characteristics and mechanical properties in terms of rupture and adherence in dry state, wet state and after being submerged in artificial acid sweat solution. The tapes studied were grouped by color and brand to standardize the KT applications.

This analysis will facilitate the reproducibility and standardization of KT application strain through knowledge of the different elongation percentages of each KT, thereby facilitating methodologically correct tape applications to achieve reproducible effects and so determine the limitations of KT.

The characteristics and mechanical rupture properties, as well as the adherence properties of specimens from 19 brands of KT were analyzed. Rolls of tape in four different colors reference 1: blue; reference 2: black; reference 3: beige; reference 4: red from each brand were tested. All the KTs were new, unused and unopened. Before beginning each test, the dynamometer software requested the grammage of each specimen to adjust the preload. The ISO standard practice for atmosphere conditioning and physical testing of textiles [ 24 ] was followed, as was the ISO standard practice for preconditioning and conditioning the tests [ 25 ].

Germany during the strain test of one black tape. The appearance of white marks in the tape indicates its immediate breakage.

ISO standard testing practice [ 26 ] specifies a reliable procedure to determine the maximum force and elongation at maximum force of textiles using the strip method. They were stretched at a constant rate of extension until rupture occurred. The mean value of the data obtained was calculated.

To evaluate the adherence force and the work done to remove the KT from skin, pieces of untanned sheepskin, mm wide by mm long, were included in the test. Germany during the adherence test of one red tape.

The tape is adhered on a piece of untanned sheepskin. From this moment, the dynamometer began to separate the clamps, stretching the test piece until it came away from the skin. To carry out the tests in wet state, water quality parameters for Grade 3 water were used, in accordance with ISO specifications for water for analytical laboratory use [ 27 ]. The water was poured into a suitable, clean, airtight vessel. After this time had lapsed the previously described dynamometer methodology for testing the dry samples was repeated with the wet samples.

To carry out the tests with artificial acidic sweat, the formula for artificial acidic sweat defined in the relevant UNE standard [ 28 ] was used. After this time, the previously described dynamometer methodology was repeated for these samples. Components extracted from 7 black-color specimens were also analyzed by gas chromatography—mass spectrometry GC-MS.

The distribution of the data was evaluated using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The significant differences were investigated further using pairwise comparisons to control inflation of type I errors, specifically the Tukey tests. Before the analyses were carried out, the parametric assumptions such as approximate normality and homogeneity of variances, and these detection analyses, were considered not to present any impediment to the use of ANOVA.

The grammage ranged from Maximum force ranged from Brand 8 demonstrated the greatest maximum force and tenacity, demonstrating a statistically significant difference from the other brands. Black KT demonstrated the lowest maximum force capacity, tenacity and pre-elongation. Blue KT demonstrated the greatest work capacity and the greatest pre-elongation.

The differences between the other colored tapes were not statistically significant. Black KTs had the highest grammage. Subsequently, 58 substances were recovered which were contained in at least one of the KTs studied. Maximum force ranged from 0. Blue KT demonstrated the greatest maximum force and Tape 4 the least. The objective of this study was to define the characteristics, and mechanical rupture and adherence properties of a wide variety of KT specimens.

In this way, we attempt to respond to the need to define standardized and reproducible application criteria so that the effects of KTs can be specified. The two previous studies [ 22 , 23 ] found differences between their specimens, and [ 23 ] found significant differences between the KT brands tested. Following the standard testing methodology, the grammage of each specimen must be taken and a pre-load must be carried out before each test.

The previous study which used a dynamometer [ 23 ] does not mention this information and consequently the method used to extract the data remains unknown. This makes it impossible to reproduce the research and could lead to the generation of further conflicting results. Untanned sheepskin was used to ensure that the adherence test was as reliable as possible and its results were applicable to clinical practice. Study [ 23 ] obtained far lower values using a metal plate. Taking the maximum elongation of 4 KT specimens Fig.

At its maximum elongation point of rupture the tape has lower energy absorption potential as it is in the plastic-elastic region of the stress-strain curve, tenacity is lower and, consequently, the work or total area under the curve is very large Fig. This reasoning can be considered fundamental and demonstrates that the tension produced by different tapes does vary.

Tape 1: Strain of a beige tape reference [ 10 ] until breakage. Tape 2: Strain of a red tape reference [ 9 ] until breakage. Tape 3: Strain of a blue tape reference [ 11 ] until breakage. Tape 4: Strain of a black tape reference [ 4 ] until breakage. We concur with Pamuk and Yucesoy [ 21 ] that the application of KT produces effects and that different applications cause different effects, but in order to specify said effects the same mechanical response must be achieved using an optimum, specific and reproducible level of tension.

Achieving said mechanical response may require different elongations in different KTs. To this end the characteristics and properties of the KT used must be specified in addition to its maximum adherence force. In their literature review Morris et al.

This exclusivity was to improve the accuracy of their conclusions, as they believed other brands of KT used in clinical practice were different. It remains to be shown whether the variability in the tension and adherence of KTs changes the effect they produce during their application even when the same application metholodolgy is used for different tapes.

Our results suggest that the basic concepts of KT application are not yet complete and that studies which tried to determine the effects of KT are not reproducible. This may explain the disparity in the results obtained by different studies investigating the effects of KT.

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