HYMENOPTERA PARASITICA PDF

A review of the genera and species of Hymenoptera Parasitica and Chrysidoidea reported so far from Reunion Island is provided with host information. Data presented here is based on a review of the existing literature by the authors. This review records a total of species. Furthermore, they play an important role in the regulation of insect pests and many of them are used in biological control programs all over the world. The failures and successes of their use in biocontrol have been extensively reviewed e.

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Almost everybody could explain you more or less accurately what both parasites and predators are. But could everybody say you what a parasitoid is? Animals and especially insects set up a lot of different symbiotic relationships , but often we find organisms whose relationship is somewhere between one and another this is not a matter not of black or white!

In the case of parasitoid insects, we talk about organisms that establish a symbiotic relationship with traits of both predator-prey relationships and a parasitic ones. Read this article to find out what parasitoid insects are, which is their origin and which kind of parasitoid insects exist. They are more useful than they seem to be! Parasitoids are not exclusively insects, but the greater part of parasitoids belong to the subphyllum Hexapoda.

For this reason, I will focus my explanation on parasitoid insects. Before giving you further explanations, we must make the differences between parasitoids, parasites and predators clear. In a parasitic relationship , parasites benefit at the expense of other organisms, the hosts, which are damaged in result.

But despite of hurting it, parasites try to keep their hosts alive as long as possible in order to keep on benefiting from them, so parasites rarely kill their hosts. In a predator-prey relationship , predators feed on a lot of organisms the prey throughout their life cycle in order to keep on developing. Finally, between parasitism and predation we find parasitoid organisms : insects with a parasitic larval stage that develop by feeding on a single host, which is usually another insect or arthropod.

In contrast with parasites, parasitoids larvae kill their hosts to complete their life cycle ; so, in which sense are they different from predators?

The answer is that parasitic larvae only need to feed on a single host to reach adulthood. While parasitoid larvae are a parasitic life form, parasitoid adults tend to be herbivores or predators. Parasitoid insects are present in many insect orders Coleoptera, Diptera.. Because of that, in this section I will focus on talking only about the origin and diversity of hymenopteran parasitoids. The most important and also evolved group of hymenopterans is the suborder Apocrita , which includes wasps, bees and ants.

In turn, the suborder Apocrita is divided in two artificial groups:. The sister group of Apocrita is the family Orussidae from the Symphyta suborder , which is also considered the most ancient groups of hymenopterans. This conclusion is based on the studies about ecologic traits of current Orussidae specimens: some of these organisms establish a positive relationship with some symbiotic xylophagus fungi i. Thus, fungi process wood to obtain a product that can be digested by Orussidae.

Thus, these parasitic Orussidae obtain nutrients by feeding on other Orussidae members and obtain more energy in result. Idiobiont parasitoids paralyze or prevent further development of hosts when laying , so parasitoid larvae could have a reliable and immobile source of food at their birth. Usually, idiobionts attack hosts that are concealed in plant tissues for example, wood or exposed hosts that possess other kinds of physical protections, so female parasitoids have developed long and sharp ovopositors that allow them to pierce these barriers.

Idiobiont parasitoids can be both ectoparasitoids and endoparasitoids i. Moreover, parasitoid larvae feed on hosts only on the last development stages until the moment they reach adulthood. Ectoparasitoid idiobiont females first inject venom into the host, to induce temporary or permanent paralysis , and then ovoposits on or near the immobilized host. In some cases, females that have just layed their eggs stay near the lay to protect it and also to prevent host to be eaten by other organisms.

Most of parasitoid insects and especially hymenopterans, dipterans and coleopterans are koinobionts. Unlike idiobionts, almost all koinobionts are endoparasitic and lay their eggs directly inside the host, which can be both exposed and concealed. However, the trait that truly differentiates koinobiont parasitoids from idiobiont parasitoids is the fact that koinobionts allow the host to continue its development while feeding on it.

Due to the close relationship established by parasitoids and hosts, koinobiont parasitoids tend to be less generalist than idiobionts when looking for a suitable host. Parasitoids, like predators or parasites, perform an important ecological role because they act as natural regulators of other organisms populations.

So, parasitic larvae kill a lot of organisms that could damage the environment or even other organisms if their populations grow excessively. Thus, the disappearance of parasitoids just like predators or parasites could entail an excessive increase of some animal populations especially other insects populations. For that reason, parasitoids are considered as a great biological control agent against different plagues in gardens and crops.

Parasites, parasitoids and predators Parasitoids are not exclusively insects, but the greater part of parasitoids belong to the subphyllum Hexapoda. Aedes albopictus female tiger mosquito or forest mosquito biting its host Public domain. Mantis eating a prey Picture by Avenue, CC. Origin and diversity of parasitoids Parasitoid insects are present in many insect orders Coleoptera, Diptera..

Sting of a female bee Apidae Public domain. Adult females of the group Parasitica have a long and sharp ovopositor they stab into different surfaces wood, another insect… so they can lay their eggs inside.

Parasitoid female bee of the species Megarhyssa macrurus, family Ichneumonidae, with its long and sharp ovopositor she use to lay their eggs Picture by Bruce Marlin , CC. Orussus coronatus Fam. Orussidae Public domain. Pimplinae fam. Hymenopteran female from the subfamily Pimplinae family Ichneumonidae stabbing her ovopositor in a trunk surface to lay eggs Picture by Cristophe Quintin on Flickr, CC. Koinobionts Most of parasitoid insects and especially hymenopterans, dipterans and coleopterans are koinobionts.

Ecological function of parasitoids Parasitoids, like predators or parasites, perform an important ecological role because they act as natural regulators of other organisms populations. Tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta being attacked by a parasitoid wasp of the superfamily Braconidae. In this picture, the larvae of the wasp have reached the pupal stage white rice-shaped cocoons and, at the end of pupation, adults will emerge, killing the hornworm.

Tobacco hornworm is considered a harmful plague for plants of the family Solanaceae like tobacco, tomato and potato Foto de R. Timothy M. Goater , Cameron P. Goater , Gerald W. Esch Cambridge University Press. Vincent H. Resh , Ring T.

Encyclopedia of Insects. Academic Press. Donald L. Quicke

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Characteristics of Hymenoptera Parasitica (Insecta: Hymenoptera).

Almost everybody could explain you more or less accurately what both parasites and predators are. But could everybody say you what a parasitoid is? Animals and especially insects set up a lot of different symbiotic relationships , but often we find organisms whose relationship is somewhere between one and another this is not a matter not of black or white! In the case of parasitoid insects, we talk about organisms that establish a symbiotic relationship with traits of both predator-prey relationships and a parasitic ones. Read this article to find out what parasitoid insects are, which is their origin and which kind of parasitoid insects exist. They are more useful than they seem to be! Parasitoids are not exclusively insects, but the greater part of parasitoids belong to the subphyllum Hexapoda.

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Parasitic Hymenoptera (Parasitica)

Disclaimer : Dedicated naturalists volunteer their time and resources here to provide this service. We strive to provide accurate information, but we are mostly just amateurs attempting to make sense of a diverse natural world. If you need expert professional advice, contact your local extension office. Contributors own the copyright to and are solely responsible for contributed content. Click the contributor's name for licensing and usage information. Upcoming Events Information, insects and people from the BugGuide Gathering in Louisiana , July Discussion , insects and people from the gathering in Virginia , July Photos of insects and people from the gathering in Wisconsin , July Photos of insects and people from the gathering in Virginia , June Photos of insects and people from the gathering in Arizona , July Photos of insects and people from the gathering in Alabama Photos of insects and people from the gathering in Iowa.

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Arxiu d'etiquetes: hymenopteran parasitica

Back to the main Bees, Wasps and Ants page. Rhyssa persuasoria is a large Ichneumonid that is an ectoparasite on larvae of the Greater Horntail Urocerus gigas. These impressive insects are completely harmless. Most 'Parasitica' are very small, about the size of gnats, and often go unnoticed. They are called 'Parasitica' as a large majority of females seek out an invertebrate host to deposit their eggs. Females who lay eggs on insects in the open air have very small ovipositor ; those which attack larvae underground, or are protected by some shelter, have long ovipositors. On hatching, the larva gets nutrients from body of the victim, and only when the larvae reaches its final growing stage does it start to feed on the vital organs, resulting in the death of the parasitised invertebrate.

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