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This banner text can have markup. Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. Miles and Refah Seniz. Max Miiller. Its subject-matter — magic and medicine — is not destitute of interest. It is closely connected with the Greek magical papyri from Egypt of the same period, but, being written in demotic, naturally does not reproduce the Greek hymns which are so important a feature of those papyri.

The influence of purely Greek mythology also is here by comparison very slight — hardly greater than that of the Alexandrian Judaism which has supplied a number of names of Hellenistic form to the demotic magician.

Mithraism has apparently contributed nothing at all : Christianity probably only a deformed reference to the Father in Heaven. On the other hand, as might have been expected, Egyptian mythology has an overwhelm- ingly strong position, and whereas the Greek papyri scarcely go beyond Hermes, Anubis, and the Osiris legend, the demotic magician introduces Khons, Amon, and many other Egyptian gods. Also, whereas the former assume a knowledge of the modus operandi in divination by the lamp and bowl, the latter describes it in great detail.

But the papyrus is especially interesting for the language in which it is written. It must not be forgotten, too, that this is the document which contributed perhaps more than any other to the decipherment of demotic, partly through its numerous Greek glosses.

We have therefore thought that a complete edition, with special reference to its philological importance, would be useful. The vocabulary is extensive, com- prising about a thousand words. There is considerable inconsistency in the spelling of words in the papyrus itself. So much having to be rendered more or less conventionally, while fresh light is thrown daily on the intricacies of demotic, it is prob- able that there are a good many inconsistencies in our transliterations, translations, and notes, in spite of the watchfulness of the excellent reader at the Clarendon PREFACE vii Press.

Those, however, who have dealt with the sub- ject at all will probably not judge these too hardly. In conclusion, we have to record our gratitude, first, to our predecessors in publication and decipherment of the papyrus — to Reuvens, Leemans, and Hess, to Brugsch, Maspero, Revillout, and W. Max Muller— but for whose varied contributions our task would have been infinitely more laborious even in the present advanced state of the study : and secondly, to the authorities of the Egyptian department in the British Museum, and of the Rijksmuseum in Leiden, for their courtesy in affording every facility for studying the original MS.

Boeser of the Leiden Museum for much kindness and assistance. The History of the MS. Condition of the MS. Contents of the MS. Previous work on the MS. The Glosses Date Synopsis of Contends Explanation of Signs The demotic magical papyrus of London and Leiden was discovered at Thebes with other papyri, principally Greek but dealing with subjects of a like nature, in the early part of the last century, and was bought by Ana- stasi, who was at that time Swedish consul at Alexandria, and made a large collection of Egyptian MSS.

When Anastasi obtained the MS. The Leiden fragment was made known to the world much earlier than that in the British Museum. Its importance for the deciphering of the demotic script by the help of the numerous glosses in Graeco-Coptic characters was at once perceived by the distinguished scholar Reuvens, at that time Director of the Leiden Museum of Antiquities, who proceeded to study it carefully, and in published an admirable essay 1 in which he sketched the principal contents of the MS.

Letronne sur les papyrus bilingues et grecs, par C. Leide, Premiere lettre, Papyrus bilingues. He then took in hand its reproduction, and the MS. Heinrich Brugsch studied it closely, and drew from it most of the examples quoted in his Demotic Grammar published in ; but, although later scholars have frequently quoted from it and translated fragments of it, the MS. The London MS. To the late Dr. He had studied the Leiden portion, and at once recognized the handwriting of its fellow in London.

Without publishing the fact, he communicated it to Professor Hess of Freiburg, when the latter was working in Leiden on the MS. Professor Hess went on to London, and, having fully confirmed Dr.

Pleyte's statement, published in a reproduction of the British Museum MS. Reuvens in his essay dwelt at some length on the ' gnostic ' character of the MS. Conrad Leemans. Demotisch- deutsches Glossar von J. Freiburg, He even went so far as to associate them with the name of a particular gnostic leader, Marcus, of the second century, chiefly on the ground of his recorded use of Hebrew and Syriac names in his invocations and the combinations of vowels.

In consequence the MS. But as will be seen from the complete translation here published, there is nothing in the work relating to the gnostic systems — it deals with magic and medicine, and it seems a misnomer to call the MS.

Hence it has been thought desirable to abandon the epithet ' gnostic,' and to call the work the 'Magical papyrus of London and Leiden ' Pap. The London portion is in far better condition than the Leiden portion.

The papyrus is pale in colour and the ink very black ; consequently where the MS. The Leiden papyrus, on the other hand, has unfortu- nately suffered much, as Leemans, with a view to protecting the surface, covered both recto and verso with 'vegetable' paper, which probably could not be removed now without serious injury to the MS. The main body of the writing is on the recto horizontal fibres of the papyrus, while on the verso are written memoranda, medical prescriptions, and short invocations.

The Leiden MS. The London portion forms the initial part of the MS. The first London column is imperfect, and it is not possible to say with certainty whether the MS. It is quite possible that it began here. On the other hand, it is certain that the MS.

It is impossible to estimate how much is lost, as the MS. The two portions, if joined together, would measure, roughly speaking, some 5 m. In height it averages nearly 25 cm.

The writing is in columns, of which there are twenty-nine on the CONTENTS 5 recto, while on the verso are thirty-three small columns or portions of columns ; but these are not marked off, as are the recto columns, by vertical and horizontal framing lines 1 , nor are they written continuously, but they seem to have been jotted down there on account of their brevity and discontinuous character.

The recto columns vary somewhat in size, but average 20 x 20 cm. The writing is frequently carried beyond the framing lines. In each column of the recto the number of lines is on the average about thirty to thirty-three ; but the number is very irregular, ranging from forty-three in one column to five in another. As has been stated above, the MS. An analysis of the contents will be found on page From this it will be seen to consist mainly of directions for divination processes involving numerous invocations, together with erotica and medical prescriptions, in which, however, magic plays as large a part as medicine.

The MS. Fragments of similar works in demotic exist at Paris Louvre, No. V, and re-edited by Dieterich, Pap. The Greek papyri containing similar texts are numerous, many examples having been pub- 1 The horizontal lines on the recto are continuous for the whole length of the papyrus. The well-known codex of the Bibliotheque Nationale published by Wessely, Denkschr.

Wien, xxxvi. Griffith, A. Magic was from the earliest times largely developed by the Egyptians in relation both to the dead and the living. Under the former head fall both the pyramid texts and other texts found in the tombs, including most of the Book of the Dead, which consists mainly of magical invocations intended to make smooth the path of the deceased in the next world.

Magical texts for the use of the living are found in the Harris magical papyrus ed. Chabas, i , the Metternich stela ed. Golenischeff, and kindred stones, the Berlin papyrus edited by Erman Zauber- spriiche fur Mutter u. Reference may be made to the volume on Egyptian magic by Dr. Wallis Budge, , and to a special study on vessel-divination by E. Lefebure, ' Le vase divinatoire,' in Sphinx, , VI. Greek Pap.

In the closely allied department of medicine, it is sufficient to refer to the Ebers papyrus, the Kahun papyri, and the Berlin medical papyrus ed. Brugsch, Rec. Among the Greek medical writers it is noticeable that Alexander of Tralles seems much more closely allied to the Egyptian school, if that be represented by our MS.

From the first its numerous glosses have attracted the attention of scholars, and have been the means of fixing the value of a large number of demotic groups. Further it is in date probably the latest known papyrus written in the demotic script ; most of the glosses are really Coptic transcriptions, and under this head may likewise be included all the Egyptian words written in cipher; so that the MS. Possibly too the text may be of importance in relation to the question of dialects in pagan Egypt; but that is a subject too little worked out at present to allow of definite statements.

The vocabulary is very extensive, and includes a number of Greek words, the names of over plants, besides numerous animals and minerals. It may be useful to record here the names of those who have dealt with the MS. Supra, p. Setna, introd. Max Muller. Setna pass. Demotisch- deutsches Glossar, As the London portion of the MS.


The Leyden Papyrus

This banner text can have markup. Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. Miles and Refah Seniz. Max Miiller.


Leyden Papyrus X

The Leyden papyrus X P. Leyden X is a papyrus codex written in Greek at about the end of the 3rd century A. The Leiden papyrus was discovered at Thebes in Egypt, together with the Stockholm Papyrus , which was probably written by the same scribe, [3] and many Greek magical papyri , in the early 19th century by an adventurer calling himself Jean d'Anastasi , holding the office of Swedish vice-consul in Alexandria. In he sold a number of papyri to the Dutch government, which were lodged at the Leiden University Library, and labelled alphabetically from A to Z.


Leyden papyrus X



The Demotic Magical Papyrus of London and Leiden


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